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THE JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY
Rivista di Chirurgia Cardiaca, Vascolare e Toracica
Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES CARDIAC SECTION
The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 2002 February;43(1):17-23
Mortality and morbidity from intra-aortic balloon pumps. Risk analysis
Meco M., Gramegna G., Yassini A., Bellisario A., Mazzaro E., Babbini M. *, Pediglieri A. *, Panisi P., Tarelli G., Frigiola A. **, Menicanti L. **, Cirri S.
From the Division of Cardiac Surgery
*Division of Anesthesia and Resuscitation
**Division of Cardiac Surgery
Malan Center S. Ambrogio Clinical Institute, Milan, Italy
San Donato Hospital San Donato Milanese - Milan, Italy
Background. The purpose of this study, was to assess the incidence of and predictors for mortality and morbidity in patients who required postoperative intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) support.
Methods. We have retrospectively estimated 116 patients and data were statistically analyzed, and significant variables were evaluated with multivariate analysis.
Results. Mortality rate was 57.8% (67 patients). Nineteen patients (16.3%) had major vascular complications: 12 patients (10.3%) limb ischemia, 1 patient (0.9%) aortic dissection, 6 patients (5.2%) mesenteric infarction. Thirty patients (25.8%) had minor vascular complication: 23 patients (19.8%) bleeding from insertion site, 7 (6%) patients infection of insertion site. Limb ischemia was resolved by IABP removal (10 patients), thrombectomy (2 patients). No patient required limb amputation. Sixty patients (51.7%) had renal insufficiency, of which 40 patients needed dialysis. Fifteen patients (10.3%) had neurological complications, 13 patients (11.2%) thrombocytopenia and 5 patients (4.3%) sepsis.
Conclusions. The incidence of IABP insertion in our institution was 1.5%. Mortality rate is similar to mortality of other studies in which the IABP has been inserted in the postoperative period. We have found that timing of IABP insertion, thrombocytopenia, presence of peripheral vascular disease and the redo intervention are independent predictors of mortality. We also found that female sex, diabetes, history of cigarette smoking and preoperative use of antiplatelet drugs are independent predictors of limb ischemia. The following factors are instead independent predictors of renal insufficiency: postoperative ejection fraction lower than 40% and non use of dobutamine in the postoperative period.