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Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,632
Online ISSN 1827-191X
Arko F. R., Buckley C. J., Lee S. D., Manning L. G., Patterson D. E.
From the Division of Vascular Surgery Texas A&M University Health Science Center Scott & White Clinic, Temple, USA
Background. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is the standard of care for patients with high-grade carotid artery stenosis who are acceptable surgical candidates. Focal occlusive lesions of the origin of aortic arch vessels can be effectively and safely treated with balloon angioplasty and primary stenting. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review results of carotid endarterectomy for high-grade carotid bifurcation stenosis combined with intraoperative retrograde transluminal angioplasty and primary stenting of a hemodynamically significant stenosis at the origin of a proximal ipsilateral aortic arch vessel.
Methods. Between October 1994 and August 1998, 592 patients underwent CEA. Six patients were found to have hemodynamically significant tandem lesions affecting one of the aortic arch vessels and the ipsilateral ICA for an overall incidence of 1%. Age ranged from 63 to 78 years (mean 74.7). Four of 6 (67%) patients had asymptomatic lesions, and 2 of 6 (33%) had symptoms of cerebral ischemia. Five patients had tandem lesions affecting the proximal left common carotid artery and the left ICA. One patient had a tandem lesion affecting the innominate artery and the right ICA. Carotid duplex imaging and arch and cerebral arteriography was performed in all six patients. Arteriography confirmed high-grade stenoses in both the ICA and ipsilateral proximal aortic arch vessel. The range of stenoses in the ICA was 70 to 95% (mean 80.8%) measured arteriographically. The range of stenoses at the origin of the aortic arch vessels was 75-90% (mean 79.2%). All six patients underwent combined retrograde transluminal balloon angioplasty and primary stenting of the ipsilateral CCA or innominate artery with temporary occlusion of the ICA for cerebral protection. The endovascular procedure was then followed with standard surgical endarterectomy using an inline shunt.
Results. All six procedures were successfully completed. There were no periprocedural strokes or other morbidities. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 43 months (mean 23.6) and showed no evidence of recurrent stenosis by carotid duplex imaging. No TIAs or strokes related to the surgically corrected lesions were noted during the follow-up period. One patient suffered a right hemispheric stroke secondary to a high-grade right carotid stenosis which occurred two months after her procedure surgically correcting tandem lesions on the opposite side.
Conclusions. Carotid endarterectomy with balloon angioplasty and primary stenting of an ipsilateral hemodynamically significant aortic arch trunk vessel stenosis can be safely and successfully accomplished and avoids the need for an intra/extrathoracic bypass procedure.