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Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
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Zanetti P. P., Sorisio V., Rosa G., Muncinelli M.
From the Department of Surgery Thoracic Aortic Surgery Center General Regional Hospital, Asti, Italy
Background. There is uncertainty regarding the most suitable form of treatment for both chronic and even more so the acute forms of DeBakey’s type III aortic dissections. This retrospective study analyses the indications and methods used in 20 acute cases and 25 chronic cases of type III dissection.
Method. The 45 patients included in this study presented a high index of operability given that they were selected from more than one coronary unit and referred to our service for this purpose. This study also confirmed a clear indication for medical treatment in uncomplicated acute forms, whereas it is necessary to opt for surgery in the case of ongoing or threatened complications. In chronic forms aorta diameter and/or thrombosis of the false lumen are a valid parameter.
Results. The incidence of mortality was 33.3% in the 12 acute forms undergoing surgery, with 4 deaths; in the case of chronic forms undergoing surgery, the incidence was 15% with 3 deaths. Of the 8 patients with acute pathology who were not operated, 87.5% died; whereas of the 5 non-operated chronic patients, 60% died (3 cases). During the post-operative period rethoracotomy was only necessary in 1 case following hemothorax on day 5, whereas at a respiratory level only 50% of patients were extubated within 48 hours, and in 12 cases it was necessary to continue until day 5-7, whereas tracheostomy was performed in 5 cases.
Conclusions. The modern tendency in the treatment of DeBakey’s type III acute dissections is to opt for surgery not only in the presence of manifest complications, but also when faced with threatened complications or the failure of medical treatment. Chronic forms present the two key indications for surgery, namely aneurysmatic evolution of the wall (> 5-6 cm) and absent thrombosis of the false lumen.