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Comerota A. J., Thakur S.
Jobst Vascular Center The Toledo Hospital, Toledo, OH, USA
The use of vena caval filters for patients at high risk for or with venous thromboembolism (VTE) has increased substantially during the past two decades. Advances in technology have improved the ease of insertion, increasing physicians’ and patients’ acceptance of the procedure. Until recently, all vena caval filters available in the United States were considered permanent, but since 2003, three nonpermanent, or optional (retrievable), filters have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This article reviews the indications for and trends of caval filtration in patients at risk for venous thromboembolic events. A decision matrix is suggested for use of vena caval filters versus other forms of VTE prophylaxis and the use of permanent versus optional filters.