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THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS
A Journal on Applied Physiology, Biomechanics, Preventive Medicine,
Sports Medicine and Traumatology, Sports Psychology
Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,111
The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2017 Apr 13
Copyright © 2017 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA
Effects of arm insulation on physiological responses during running in the cold
Ryo ITO 1 ✉, Naoyuki YAMASHITA 2, Takaaki MATSUMOTO 2
1 University Educational Center, Nihon Fukushi University, Mihamacho, Chitagun, Aichi, Japan; 2 Laboratory for Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics, Graduate School of Health and Sport Sciences Chukyo University, Kaizucho, Toyotashi, Aichi, Japan
BACKGROUND: Individuals who exercise outdoors in winter expose themselves to cold conditions, which have detrimental effects on physiological responses and exercise performance. Many runners wear arm warmers to protect against cold. However, the effects of these warmers remain unclear. This study aimed to determine the effect of arm insulation on physiological responses during running in a cold environment.
METHODS: Twelve healthy men (mean ± SD age, 22.4 ± 3.9 years; height, 1.71 ± 0.07 m; mass, 66.9 ± 8.1 kg; maximal oxygen consumption, 52.3 ± 4.79 mL/kg/min) ran on a treadmill at an intensity of 70% maximal oxygen consumption for 30 min in a climatic chamber at 5C wearing (ARM) or not wearing (CON) a tightfitting polyester sleeve on the forearm.
RESULTS: During the first 10 min of exercise, esophageal temperature was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in ARM than in CON. Weighted mean skin temperature was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in ARM than in CON. Thermal sensation was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in ARM than in CON during rest and during the first 10 min of exercise. Plasma lactate concentration was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in ARM than in CON at 10 min, and plasma norepinephrine concentration was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in ARM than in CON at 10 and 20 min.
CONCLUSIONS: Higher esophageal temperature and thermal sensation and lower plasma norepinephrine concentration indicate that arm insulation suppressed cold stress and attenuated the production of plasma lactate in the early stages of exercise.
KEY WORDS: Body temperature regulation - Cold temperature - Physiology