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The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2016 Apr 05

language: English

Lifelong amateur endurance practice attenuates oxidative stress and prevents muscle wasting in senior adults

Yaira BARRANCO-RUIZ 1, 2, Jerónimo ARAGÓN-VELA 2, Cristina CASALS 2, Antonio MARTÍNEZ-AMAT 3; Emilio VILLA-GONZÁLEZ 1, Jesús R. HUERTAS 2

1 Department of Physical Culture, Faculty of Health Sciences, National University of Chimborazo, Riobamba, Ecuador; 2 Department of Physiology, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, Biomedical Research Centre, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; 3 Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Jaén, Jaén, Spain


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BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate oxidative stress, muscle damage, enzymatic antioxidant defense and body composition in senior adults who have performed different lifelong physical activity practices.
METHODS: Twenty-three healthy senior men (60±1.88 years old) were divided into three groups according to their lifelong physical activity practice as follows: (a) Sedentary (n=7), (b) Recreational (n=9) and (c) Amateur (n=7). Blood sampling was performed at rest to analyze plasma malondialdehyde by TBARs-Assay, nuclear DNA-damage in peripheral lymphocytes using Comet-Assay, the plasma enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidase by spectrophotometry and serum alpha-actin release as skeletal muscle damage marker through Western Blot. Body composition was evaluated using anthropometric assessments by the ISAK protocol through skinfold thickness.
RESULTS: The lowest value of malondialdehyde was shown in the Amateur group. Nuclear DNA-damage was significantly lower in the Recreational group than in Sedentary and Amateur groups (MD=5.53±1.70; p=0.013. MD=5.61±1.62; p=0.008), respectively. The Amateur group showed trends toward higher glutathione peroxidase enzymatic activity than Recreational and Sedentary groups. Alpha-actin levels were significantly higher in the Amateur compared with Recreational (MD=4.34±0.46; p<0.001) and Sedentary groups (MD=4.89±0.46; p<0.001). The Sedentary group showed significantly lower muscle mass (MD=3.67±1.10; p=0.011) and higher fat mass (MD=4.19±0.98; p=0.001) than Amateur group.
CONCLUSIONS: The results described above suggest that the lifelong amateur endurance practice seems to improve oxidative stress response and strengthens hypertrophy mechanisms that might preserve muscle mass in senior adults.

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jeroav@ugr.es.