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THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS
A Journal on Applied Physiology, Biomechanics, Preventive Medicine,
Sports Medicine and Traumatology, Sports Psychology
Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,111
The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2016 Mar 31
Athletes’ perceptions of the causes of injury in gymnastics
Edvard KOLAR 1, Mitija P. SAMARDŽIJA 1, Maja SMRDU 1, Almir ATIKOVIĆ 2 ✉
1 University of Primorska, Faculty of Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Information Technologies, Koper, Slovenia; 2 University of Tuzla, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina
BACKGROUND: Gymnastics requires a high level of flexibility, conditioning and complete body recruitment that is infrequently matched by other sports. Artistic gymnastics has a relatively high incidence of injuries, which are generally minor or medium. With its’ complexity poses a unique diagnostic and treatment challenge to medical practitioners. The present study determined athletes’ perceptions of the causes of injury and possible ways to reduce their incidence.
METHOD: The research involved 63 quality athletes, of whom 20 were in men's artistic gymnastics, 21 in women's artistic gymnastics, and 22 in rhythmic gymnastics. We used the self-assessment method. Factors inducing injury were grouped into three different categories: training, the athlete himself, and the environment. We used the chi-square statistic to test the association between a risk factor and injuries. The association between injuries and risk factors was also tested using a multivariate logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: Overall, an incidence of 184 injuries was found, of which 67 (36.4%) were acute and 117 (63.5%) were chronic injuries. According to binary logistic regression analyses, psychological factors significantly associated with the prevalence of acute and chronic injury in both sexes for all disciplines were: a poor technique, improper methods of teaching, and an inadequate load. In our study, among male gymnasts higher rates of acute and chronic injury were observed among gymnasts who reported their occurrence during training by overload, and among female gymnasts who reported a poor technique, improper methods of teaching, and an inadequate load as main causes of their occurrence.
CONCLUSIONS: Improving the communication between athletes and coaches, taking the opinion of an athlete into account, and the athlete’s active involvement in preparation of the program include the most crucial points for reducing the incidence of injuries.