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THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS
A Journal on Applied Physiology, Biomechanics, Preventive Medicine,
Sports Medicine and Traumatology, Sports Psychology
Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,111
The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2016 Mar 30
Range of motion of body segments is larger during the maximal instep kick than during the submaximal instep kick in experienced football players
Rob LANGHOUT 1, 2, 3, Igor TAK 3, 4, 5, 6, Roelof van der WESTEN 7, Ton LENSSEN 8 ✉
1 Physiotherapy Dukenburg Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 2 Master Musculoskeletal Therapy (SOMT), Amersfoort, The Netherlands; 3 Dutch Institute for Allied Health Care (NPi), Master of Physical Therapy in Sports, Amersfoort, The Netherlands; 4 Physiotherapy Utrecht Oost, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 5 Academic Medical Centre, Department of Orthopaedics and Sports Traumatology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 6 Academic Centre for Evidence based Sports medicine (ACES), Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 7 FysioStofberg, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 8 Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Physical Therapy, Maastricht, The Netherlands
BACKGROUND: Football players with groin injury refrain from maximal kicking. Previous groin injury is related to decreased hip range of motion (ROM). Information on ROM differences between maximal and submaximal kicking within players is lacking. The first aim of this study is to quantify ROM of body segments during the maximal (MaxK) and submaximal (SubK) instep kick at four keypoints. The second aim is to study ROM differences of tension arc and movement trajectories between MaxK and SubK.
METHODS: Maximal (100% ball speed) and submaximal (70% ball speed) instep kicks from 15 experienced football players were registered with motion capture. ROM of hip, spine, pelvis and knee segments were determined at four keypoints. Differences in segmental ROM for the tension arc and movement trajectories between MaxK and SubK were studied. Effect sizes (ES) were calculated.
RESULTS: Ball speed was 98.8(±9.0) km/h for Maxk and 69.5(±7.1) km/h for SubK. Three keypoints timed similarly (p<0.05) for MaxK and SubK. MaxK shows increased ROM for all segments (p<0.05) but not for hip flexion. MaxK results in enlargement of tension arc and movement trajectories. Spine flexion (ES 3.2 ) and pelvis posterior tilt (ES 2.2) show the greatest relative increase.
CONCLUSIONS: Maximal kicking shows larger segmental ROM than submaximal kicking. Enlargement of tension arc and movement trajectories relate to increased segmental velocity, according to biomechanical concepts. Central body actions play an important role in kicking. This information can be used to further identify kicking strategies in athletes with injury.