Home > Journals > The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness > Past Issues > The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2016 October;56(10) > The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2016 October;56(10):1232-8





A Journal on Applied Physiology, Biomechanics, Preventive Medicine,
Sports Medicine and Traumatology, Sports Psychology

Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,111




The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2016 October;56(10):1232-8

language: English

A rapid method to non-invasively estimate training-induced hemodynamic changes in top-level athletes

Flavio D’ASCENZI 1, Marco SOLARI 1, Marta FOCARDI 1, Matteo CAMELI 1, Marco BONIFAZI 2, Sergio MONDILLO 1

1 Department of Medical Biotechnologies, University of Siena, Siena, Italy; 2 Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, University of Siena, Siena, Italy


BACKGROUND: The estimation of cardiovascular adaptation to exercise provides valuable information on training status. However, albeit of interest, it has been rarely used in athletes, being the current non-invasive techniques expensive and requiring specialist expertise. Recently, a new bioreactance-based method is available; however, no data have been collected in trained athletes. The aim of this prospective, longitudinal study was to evaluate by bioreactance the training-induced hemodynamic changes.
METHODS: Ten top-level basketball players were enrolled. Bioreactance analysis was performed at the beginning and after 5 months of training and an echocardiographic examination was simultaneously performed.
RESULTS: After training, no significant differences were found in cardiac output (P=0.68) and in cardiac index (P=0.78). Diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased (P<0.05) and a non-significant decrease in peripheral resistance was observed (P=0.57). A significant increase in thoracic fluid content was observed after training (P<0.05). While absolute values were different between bioreactance and echocardiography, a similar trend of exercise-induced hemodynamic changes was found. Both before and after training, an inverse relationship between TPR and CO (r=-0.818, P<0.005; r=-0.891, P=0.001, respectively) and between TPR and SV was found (r=-0.794, P=0.006; r=-0.745, P<0.05, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Bioreactance-derived method represents a novel non-invasive technique able to provide a rapid and comprehensive evaluation of cardiovascular response to training. Using trends rather than single, isolated measurements, this method could provide useful data on the cardiovascular response to training in competitive athletes.

top of page

Publication History

Cite this article as

Corresponding author e-mail