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Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,111
EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOMECHANICS
Koji HOGA-MIURA 1, Michiyoshi AE 2, Norihisa FUJII 2, Toshiharu YOKOZAWA 3
1 Faculty of Economics, Seikei University, Tokyo, Japan; 2 Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; 3 Japan Institute of Sports Sciences, Tokyo, Japan
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the function of the upper extremities of elite race walkers during official 20 km races, focusing on the angular momentum about the vertical axis and other parameters of the upper extremities.
METHODS: Sixteen walkers were analysed using the three-dimensional direct linear transformation method during three official men’s 20 km walking races. The subjects, included participants at the Olympics and World Championships, who finished without disqualification and had not been disqualified during the two years prior to or following the races analysed in the present study.
RESULTS: The angular momenta of the upper and lower body were counterbalanced as in running and normal walking. The momentum of the upper body was mainly generated by the upper extremities. The joint force moment of the right shoulder and the joint torque at the left shoulder just before right toe-off were significantly correlated with the walking speed. These were counterbalanced by other moments and torques to the torso torque, which worked to obtain a large mechanical energy flow from the recovery leg to the support leg in the final phase of the support phase.
CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, a function of the shoulder torque was to counterbalance the torso torque to gain a fast walking speed with substantial mechanical energy flow.