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THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS
A Journal on Applied Physiology, Biomechanics, Preventive Medicine,
Sports Medicine and Traumatology, Sports Psychology
Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,111
ORIGINAL ARTICLES PSICHOLOGY
The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2016 May;56(5):648-54
Prevalence and determinants of symptoms related to mental disorders in retired male professional footballers
Vincent GOUTTEBARGE 1-4, Haruhito AOKI 5, Gino M. KERKHOFFS 2-4 ✉
1 World Players’ Union (FIFPro), Hoofddorp, The Netherlands; 2 Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 3 Academic Center for Evidence-based Sports Medicine (ACES), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherland; 4 Amsterdam Collaboration for Health & Safety in Sports (ACHSS), Academic Medical Center/VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 5 St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Japan
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms related to mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol behavior, adverse smoking behavior, adverse nutrition behavior) among retired professional footballers, and to explore their associations with stressors, i.e. determinants such as severe injury, surgery, life events and career dissatisfaction.
METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among retired male professional footballers. Based on validated questionnaires to assess both stressors and symptoms related to mental disorders, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players’ unions in 11 countries across three continents.
RESULTS: Prevalence of symptoms related to mental disorders among 219 retired professional footballers ranged from 11% for adverse smoking behavior and 18% for distress, to 35% for anxiety/depression and 65% for adverse nutrition behavior. Especially life events that occurred in the previous six months was positively associated with distress (OR=1.3; 95% CI: 1.0-1.6), anxiety/depression (OR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.1), sleeping disturbance (OR=1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.7) and adverse nutrition behavior (OR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.0-1.8).
CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of symptoms related to mental disorders was found among retired professional footballers, confirming a previous study in a similar study population. Relationships were established between symptoms of mental disorders and severe injuries, recently occurred life events, and career dissatisfaction.