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Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,111
Online ISSN 1827-1928
SPORTS AND EXERCISE CARDIOLOGY
Marcelino G. 1, 2, Melich-Cerveira J. 1, 2, Paccaud F. 2, Marques-Vidal P. 2
1 Medical Faculty of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal;
2 Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Epalinges, Switzerland
AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the effects of physical fitness on the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and body fat (BF) on blood pressure (BP) levels.
METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted in 25 schools of Lisbon (Portugal), including 2041 boys and 1995 girls aged 10-18. BF was assessed by bioimpedance. Cardiovascular fitness was assessed by the 20-meter shuttle run and classified as fit/unfit. Obesity (BMI or BF defined) was defined according to international criteria.
RESULTS: In both sexes, BMI was positively related with systolic and diastolic BP, while BF was only positively related with diastolic BP z-scores. No interaction was found between fitness and BMI categories regarding BP levels, while for BF a significant interaction was found. Being fit reduced the BF-induced increase in the Odds ratio (OR) of presenting with high BP: OR (95% confidence interval) 1.01 (0.73-1.40) and 0.99 (0.70-1.38) for overweight and obese fit boys, respectively, the corresponding values for unfit overweight and obese boys being 1.33 (0.94-1.90) and 1.75 (1.34-2.28), respectively. The values were 0.88 (0.57-1.35) and 1.66 (0.98-2.80) for overweight and obese fit girls, respectively, the corresponding values for unfit overweight and obese being 1.63 (1.12-2.37) and 1.90 (1.32-2.73) respectively. No interaction was found between fitness and BMI-defined overweight and obesity.
CONCLUSION: Being fit reduces the negative impact of BF on BP levels and high BP status in adolescents. This protective effect was not found with BMI.