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THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS
A Journal on Applied Physiology, Biomechanics, Preventive Medicine,
Sports Medicine and Traumatology, Sports Psychology
Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,111
ORIGINAL ARTICLES EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOMECHANICS
The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2012 October;52(5):457-64
The contribution of underwater kicking efficiency in determining “turning performance” in front crawl swimming
Zamparo P. 1, Vicentini M. 1, Scattolini A. 1, 2, Rigamonti M. 2, Bonifazi M. 3, 4 ✉
1 Department of Neurological, Neuropsychological, Morphological and Movement Sciences, Faculty of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy;
2 FIN (Italian Swimming Federation), Centro Federale, Verona, Italy;
3 FIN Centro Studi e Ricerche, Roma, Italy;
4 Department of Neurological, Neurosurgical and Behavioural Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects: 1) of maximal velocity (vout max) and acceleration (aout max) attained during the turn; 2) of deceleration (-aglide) and glide efficiency (GE) in the gliding phase after the turn; and 3) of the efficiency (hF) of the dolphin kick in determining the velocity and acceleration in the first 5 and the following 10 m after a turn (v5, v5-15, a5 and a5-15) in a 100 m simulated front crawl race.
METHODS: The experiments were conducted on 13 swimmers (7M/5F) and all the above mentioned parameters were derived from underwater kinematical analysis.
RESULTS: The 100 m times were smaller the larger v5, v5-15, a5 and a5-15. In turn, v5, v5-15, a5 and a5-15 were significantly related to vout max and aout max as well as to ηF and GE (R>0.57, P<0.05).
CONCLUSION: Data reported in this study indicate that in the first 5-15 m after the turn, velocity is essentially sustained by the force generated by the swimmer on the pool wall but also indicate the importance of an efficient dolphin kick (and of a streamlined glide) in determining the values of velocity and acceleration in this phase of the race.