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THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS
A Journal on Applied Physiology, Biomechanics, Preventive Medicine,
Sports Medicine and Traumatology, Sports Psychology
Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,111
ORIGINAL ARTICLES EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOMECHANICS
The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2011 September;51(3):381-92
Effect of maximal and slow versus recreational muscle contractions on energy expenditure in trained and untrained men
Mazzetti S. 1, Wolff C. 1, Yocum A. 2, Reidy P. 2, Douglass M. S. 2, Cochran M. 2, Douglass M. D. 2 ✉
1 Laboratory for Human Performance, Salisbury University, Salisbury, MD, USA;
2 Human Performance Center, Anderson University, Anderson, IN, USA
AIM:The primary purpose of this study was to compare energy expenditure among resistance exercise protocols using maximally explosive or slow contractions versus recreational in trained and untrained men.
METHODS:Seven trained (21.9±2.1 yrs) and seven untrained men (20.1±2.2 yrs) performed three nearly identical exercise protocols, and a no-exercise (CONTROL) session in a randomly assigned, counterbalanced order. Subjects performed three sets of squats, dumbbell-row, deadlift, bench press, lat-pulldown, shoulder press, arm curls and dips using either recreational (REC), 2s (SLOW) or maximally explosive contractions (MAX). Expired air was collected continuously for 15 min before, ~37-43 min during, and 2 hr postexercise. Finger prick samples (25 µL) were collected and analyzed for blood lactate (BL) (mmol.L-1) before, immediately after, and during 120 min of recovery.
RESULTS:Rates of energy expenditure were significantly (P≤0.05) greater for MAX than SLOW and REC during all exercises and +5 min after exercise in trained men, and MAX was greater than REC during all exercises except deadlift in untrained men. In trained men, total kcal were significantly greater (P≤0.05) with MAX (507±48) compared to REC (431±47), but not in untrained. Conversely, BL was significantly greater (P≤0.05) after SLOW compared to REC in trained and untrained men, while BL was only greater after MAX versus REC in trained men.
CONCLUSION: For whole-body resistance exercise programs, maximally explosive contractions optimize energy expenditure in trained men, but slow contractions are recommended for untrained exercisers. Therefore, contraction intensity should be considered a program design variable for exercise prescriptions aimed to improve general health and fitness.