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Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,111
Online ISSN 1827-1928
EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CLINICAL MEDICINE
Hopps E., Caimi G.
Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular and Nephrological Diseases, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
Obesity is considered a global epidemic by the World Health Organization in both developed and developing countries. It is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer and other clinical conditions. Visceral fat is the major responsible for metabolic complications, such as insulin-resistance, and it acts as an endocrine organ producing adipokines involved in lipidic and glycaemic metabolism. TNF-α and IL-6, produced by adipose tissue, increase NADPH oxidase activity activating protein kinase C and NFκB leading to an higher oxidative stress. The obesity management includes physical activity: aerobic training improves lipid profile and insulin sensitivity while resistance training increases lean body mass and basal metabolism and has beneficial effects on bone mineral density and glucose tolerance. An exercise program should include 30 to 45 minutes of moderate intensity activity performed 3 to 5 days a week. Weight loss is also associated with lower blood pressure and improved oxidative status, confirmed by reduced oxidative stress markers and increased antioxidant protection. An inverse association between indicators of systemic inflammation and physical activity has been demonstrated, so exercise training may reduce endothelial damage and cardiovascular risk.