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THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS
A Journal on Applied Physiology, Biomechanics, Preventive Medicine,
Sports Medicine and Traumatology, Sports Psychology
Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,111
Original articles EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CLINICAL MEDICINE
Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2009 June;49(2):177-83
Bone mineral density and sport: effect of physical activity
Pigozzi F., Rizzo M., Giombini A., Parisi A., Fagnani F., Borrione P.
Department of Health Science University of Rome “Foro Italico”, Rome, Italy
Osteoporosis is a multifactorial progressive skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone mass which predisposes to increased fracture risk. Fractures are often associated with increased morbidity, mortality, loss of function, deformity and functional limitations. The major public health impact of osteoporosis calls for organized strategies for both primary and secondary prevention. Even if pharmacological therapeutic interventions provide substantial reduction in fracture risk, prevention of osteoporosis should begin early in life. Primary prevention during growth and adolescence aims to obtain a high peak bone mass, adequate calcium intake, exercise and early diagnosis and treatment of potential skeletal deformities. Secondary prevention, during middle age, aims to identify the subjects with low bone mass and more than one risk factor for an osteoporotic fracture, in order to plan multifactorial interventions with a special emphasis on nutritional aspects and individualized sport therapy.