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Original articles  SPORT PSYCHOLOGY


The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2007 June;47(2):228-33

Copyright © 2007 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

The relationship between sources of motivation and level of practice in young portuguese swimmers

Salselas V. 1, Gonzalez-Boto R. 2, Tuero C. 2, Marquez S. 2

1 School of Physical Education ISLA-Bragança, Portugal 2 School of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences University of León, León, Spain


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Aim. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between participation motives and level of practice in young Portuguese swimmers and to investigate whether swimmers with a different expertise differ in their reasons for participation involvement.
Methods. A total of 155 subjects (68 male and 87 female), aged 7 to 18 years, responded to the Portuguese versions of the Participation Motivation Inventory. The subjects were divided into those participating in learn-to swim programs (n=40), advanced programs (n=49) or competition (n=56).
Results. A significant multivariate effect was obtained for level of practice, with children involved in learn-to swim programs rating fitness, competition, general affiliation, technical skills and fun significantly lower in importance than the other two groups. A 2 (subject gender) ×3 (practice level) MANCOVA, with age at dropout, revealed that the effect of the covariate itself was not significant, but a main effect was found for gender, differing boys and girls only in the emotion factor. A significant interaction was also detected between gender and participation level, with a higher importance given to general affiliation by girls in comparison to boys in the advanced programs and competition categories.
Conclusion. Our results in a sample of Portuguese swimmers indicate the existence of multiple motives for participation and significant differences in motivational factors in relation to the practice level.

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