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A Journal on Applied Physiology, Biomechanics, Preventive Medicine,
Sports Medicine and Traumatology, Sports Psychology


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Original articles  EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOMECHANICS


The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2006 June;46(2):215-20

language: English

Evaluation of tests of maximum kicking performance

Markovic G. 1, Dizdar D. 1, Jaric S. 2

1 Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
2 Department of Health, Nutrition, and Exercise Sciences University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA


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Aim. Despite the important role of kicking in various athletic activities, the reliability of tests of maximum kicking performance has not been evaluated. The aim of the present study was to assess the reproducibility of performance of standing kick, instep kick and drop kick.
Methods. Male physical education students (n=77) were tested on maximum kicking performance by means of a standard Doppler radar gun.
Results. The maximal ball speed in the standing kick, instep kick and drop kick (averaged across the subjects and trials) were 19.8±1.9 m s-1, 26.7±2.7 m s-1 and 25.3±2.2 m s-1, respectively. There were no significant differences in the tested performances among the consecutive kicking trials of each test. The intraclass correlation coefficients ranged between 0.94 and 0.96 (95% confidence intervals 0.93-0.97). The limits of agreement for maximum ball speed in all three tests ranged from 0.2±1.4 m s-1 to 0.3±1.3 m s-1, suggesting that in 95% of repeated trials the ball speed might be from 1.2 m s-1 less to 1.6 m s-1 greater than the original estimate. The coefficients of variation for all kicking tests were between 2.6% and 3.3% (95% confidence intervals; 2.2-3.9%) suggesting a low intra-subject variability.
Conclusion. Due to a high reliability, relative simplicity, and a small number of participants needed to detect worthwhile changes, the evaluated kicking tests could be highly recommended for sport specific profiling and early selection of young athletes, as well as for the assessment of training procedures and other interventions applied on individual teams of elite soccer, rugby or American football players.

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