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The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2003 September;43(3):356-66

language: English

The effects of various therapeutic measures on shoulder range of motion and cross-sectional areas of rotator cuff muscles after baseball pitching

Yanagisawa O. 1, Miyanaga Y. 2, Shiraki H. 2, Shimojo H. 2, Mukai N. 2, Niitsu M. 3, Itai Y. 3

1 Doc­toral Pro­gram in Med­ical Sci­ence, Uni­ver­sity of Tsu­kuba, Tsu­kuba, ­Japan
2 Insti­tute of ­Health and ­Sport Sci­ences, Uni­ver­sity of Tsu­kuba, Tsu­kuba, ­Japan
3 Depart­ment of ­Radiology, Insti­tute of Clin­ical Med­i­cine, Uni­ver­sity of Tsu­kuba, Tsu­kuba, ­Japan


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Aim. The pur­pose of ­this ­study was to inves­ti­gate the ­effects of var­ious ther­a­peutic meas­ures on the ­shoulder ­range of ­motion (ROM) and ­muscle ­cross-sec­tional ­area (­mCSA) of ­rotator ­cuff mus­cles ­after base­ball ­pitching.
­Methods. Experi­mental ­design: a ­mode of ther­a­peutic meas­ures was clas­si­fied in 4 ­groups; the con­trol (CON), ice treat­ment (IT), ­light ­shoulder exer­cise (LSE) and ice treat­ment ­with LSE (­ILSE) ­groups. ­Each ther­a­peutic ­measure was per­formed ­after ­pitching. Par­tic­i­pants: 7 ­healthy, ­skilled base­ball ­pitchers. Meas­ures: ROM and ­mCSA ­were meas­ured ­before ­pitching, imme­di­ately ­after ­pitching, at the ­time of the ther­a­peutic ­measure, and 24 ­hours ­after ­pitching. ­Shoulder ROM at 90° of abduc­tion ­included ­internal rota­tion (­IROM), max­imum ­internal rota­tion (­IMROM), ­external rota­tion (­EROM) and max­imum ­external rota­tion (­EMROM).
­Results. In all ­groups, ­both ­IROM and ­IMROM ­were sig­nif­i­cantly ­decreased ­after ­pitching com­pared ­with the pre-exer­cise ­values and con­versely ­both ­EROM and ­EMROM ­were sig­nif­i­cantly ­increased. The ­mCSA of all ­rotator ­cuff mus­cles ­were ­increased sig­nif­i­cantly ­after ­pitching. For ­IMROM, ­ILSE ­showed a sig­nif­i­cant ­recovery at the ­post-ther­a­peutic ­measure com­pared ­with the ­others and at 24 ­hours ­after ­pitching com­pared ­with IT, respec­tively. For ­IROM, ­both LSE and ­ILSE ­showed sig­nif­i­cant ­recovery com­pared ­with CON at the ­post-ther­a­peutic ­measure. For the ­mCSA of ­external mus­cles, ­ILSE ­showed a ­greater ­decrease at the ­post-ther­a­peutic ­measure ­than the ­others, and at 24 ­hours ­after ­pitching ­than CON.
Con­clu­sion. ­This ­study sug­gested the pos­sibility ­that ­ILSE was ­more effec­tive to ­recover ROM and ­decrease ­mCSA ­than the ­other ­methods.

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