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The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2003 June;43(2):223-30

Copyright © 2009 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Preanalytical phase of sport biochemistry and haematology

Banfi G. 1, Dolci A. 2

1 Istituto Clinico Villa Aprica, Como, 2 Laboratorio, Multimedica, Sesto S. Giovanni (Milan), Italy, Study Group on Laboratory Medicine in Sport of Italian Society of Clinical Biochemistry


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Bio­chem­istry and hae­ma­tology are ­more and ­more impor­tant and some­times cru­cial in ­sport med­i­cine for diag­nosing, con­trol­ling and pre­venting pur­poses. The ana­lyt­ical pro­cess and the ­global labor­a­tory ­quality are ­heavily influ­enced by the pre­an­a­lyt­ical ­phase, ­including bio­log­ical mate­rial col­lec­tion, iden­tifi­ca­tion, ­storage and trans­port of the spec­imen, prep­ar­a­tion for anal­yses of the spec­imen ­through cen­trif­u­ga­tion, ­freezing and ­thawing, ali­quoting and sam­pling. The ­increasing ­interest of ­sport bio­chem­istry ­should be ­linked to a knowl­edge of prin­cipal prob­lems and pit­falls in the prean­a­lyt­ical ­phase of var­ious param­e­ters, com­monly ­used in fol­lowing ­training, ­diet, and per­for­mances of ath­letes, to ­avoid mis­inter­pre­tation of ­data and to ­improve use­ful­ness of bio­chem­ical inves­ti­ga­tions. We pre­pared a prac­tical ­review of pre­an­a­lyt­ical ­aspects of prin­cipal anal­yses ­applied to the ath­letes. We ­include the ­choice of anti­co­ag­u­lant and its ­limits for hae­mat­o­log­ical ­tests, the prep­ar­a­tion and manip­u­la­tion of spec­i­mens for hor­mon­o­log­ical inves­ti­ga­tion, espe­cially for ­labile mole­cules, and for car­diac ­markers, lac­tate, cyto­kines, micro­nu­tri­ents, anti­ox­i­dant mole­cules. Pre­an­a­lyt­ical ­phase of spec­i­mens dif­ferent ­from ­blood are ­also ­showed, ­including ­urine and ­saliva, and ­some ­aspects of prep­ar­a­tion of mate­rials to be ana­lyzed ­with molec­ular ­biology tech­nology are ­treated. ­Stability of ­some anal­ytes, ­when the param­eter is fun­da­mental for the clin­ical use­ful­ness of the ­results, is sup­plied. Prep­ar­a­tion of the sub­jects, how­ever, ­including the pos­sible influ­ence of phys­ical exer­cise and bio­log­ical ­rythms on the bio­chem­ical and hae­mat­o­log­ical param­e­ters, are not ­listed.

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