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THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS
A Journal on Applied Physiology, Biomechanics, Preventive Medicine,
Sports Medicine and Traumatology, Sports Psychology
Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,111
The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2001 March;41(1):124-31
Scale construction for measuring attitude, beliefs, perception of control, and intention to exercise
Kerner M. S., Grossman A. H. *
From the Division of Sports Sciences School of Health Professions Long Island University, New York, USA
* New York University, New York, USA
Background. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a framework, the Fitness Attitude, Expectations of Others, Perceived Behavioral Control, and Intention to Exercise Scales were developed. Professionals in exercise physiology generated items for the instruments. Experts in clinical psychology and exercise physiology established content validity.
Methods. Each of the scale items is phrased in a rating scale format. Both unipolar and bipolar scales were developed with seven response choices offered. Following the pilot testing and subsequent revisions, 19 items were retained in the Fitness Attitude Scale, seven items were retained in the Expectations of Others Scale, three items were retained in the Perceived Behavioral Control Scale, and 11 items were retained in the Intention to Exercise Scale.
Results. Correlation coefficients for the total instruments were significantly positive for stability and internal consistency, ranging from α=0.75 to α=0.87. Exercise specialists may wish to implement the use of these scales in their practices to develop intervention techniques for the promotion of positive fitness attitudes, good perception of control over the ability to exercise, and good intentions to exercise.
Conclusions. The positive results in this study’s sample suggest that these scales are ready for application in the field, but they should be pilot-tested with each group to check reliability with the particular population.