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Original articles  

The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2001 March;41(1):124-31

language: English

Scale construction for measuring attitude, beliefs, perception of control, and intention to exercise

Kerner M. S., Grossman A. H. *

From the Division of Sports Sciences School of Health Professions Long Island University, New York, USA
* New York University, New York, USA


Background. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a frame­work, the Fitness Attitude, Expectations of Others, Perceived Behavioral Control, and Intention to Exercise Scales ­were devel­oped. Professionals in exer­cise phys­iol­o­gy gen­er­at­ed ­items for the instru­ments. Experts in clin­i­cal psy­chol­o­gy and exer­cise phys­iol­o­gy estab­lished con­tent valid­ity.
Methods. Each of the ­scale ­items is ­phrased in a rat­ing ­scale for­mat. Both uni­po­lar and bipo­lar ­scales ­were devel­oped ­with sev­en ­response choic­es ­offered. Following the ­pilot test­ing and sub­se­quent revi­sions, 19 ­items ­were ­retained in the Fitness Attitude Scale, sev­en ­items ­were ­retained in the Expectations of Others Scale, ­three ­items ­were ­retained in the Perceived Behavioral Control Scale, and 11 ­items ­were ­retained in the Intention to Exercise Scale.
Results. Correlation coef­fi­cients for the ­total instru­ments ­were sig­nif­i­cant­ly pos­i­tive for stabil­ity and inter­nal con­sis­ten­cy, rang­ing ­from α=0.75 to α=0.87. Exercise spe­cial­ists may ­wish to imple­ment the use of ­these ­scales in ­their prac­tic­es to devel­op inter­ven­tion tech­niques for the pro­mo­tion of pos­i­tive fit­ness atti­tudes, ­good per­cep­tion of con­trol ­over the abil­ity to exer­cise, and ­good inten­tions to exer­cise.
Conclusions. The pos­i­tive ­results in ­this ­study’s sam­ple sug­gest ­that ­these ­scales are ­ready for appli­ca­tion in the ­field, but ­they ­should be ­pilot-test­ed ­with ­each ­group to ­check reli­abil­ity ­with the par­tic­u­lar pop­u­la­tion.

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