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A Journal on Applied Physiology, Biomechanics, Preventive Medicine,
Sports Medicine and Traumatology, Sports Psychology

Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,111

Frequency: Monthly

ISSN 0022-4707

Online ISSN 1827-1928


The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2000 December;40(4):303-11


Physiological respons­es dur­ing two ­types of exer­cise per­formed on ­land and in the ­water

Darby L. A., Yaekle B. C.

Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Human Movement, Sport and Leisure Studies, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio, USA

Background. The pur­pose of ­this ­study was to com­pare ­heart ­rate (HR) and oxy­gen con­sump­tion (V.O2) for sim­i­lar ­upright exer­cis­es per­formed on ­land (LN) and in ­water (WA).
Methods. Setting and par­tic­i­pants: appar­ent­ly ­healthy, ­females (n=12; 20.0±1.6 yrs) com­plet­ed ­legs ­only, and ­arms and ­legs exer­cis­es in WA (30.0±0.0 C) and LN (27.3±2.1 C). Intervention: exer­cise ­cadence/inten­sity ­increased ­each 3 min to ­evoke com­par­able, rel­a­tive exer­cise HRs on LN and WA for ­each par­tic­i­pant. Experimental ­design: ­three-way (Environment X Type of exer­cise X Intensity) repeat­ed meas­ures ANCOVAs ­with ­pace as the covar­i­ate ­were cal­cu­lat­ed for V.O2 and HR. Linear and mul­ti­ple regres­sions ­were deter­mined. Measures: HR, V.O2, and ­pace ­were meas­ured for the ­final ­steady ­state min­ute of all lev­els of the inde­pen­dent var­i­ables. Resting HR and ­blood pres­sure ­were meas­ured pre- and ­postexer­cise.
Results. There was a sig­nif­i­cant ­main ­effect due to envi­ron­ment for V.O2. There was not a sig­nif­i­cant ­main ­effect of envi­ron­ment for HR ­because the ­pace of exer­cise was adjust­ed in the ­water so ­that sim­i­lar “rel­a­tive” work­loads (i.e., inten­sities, ­assessed ­from mon­i­tor­ing HR) ­were giv­en to ­each par­tic­i­pant. HR and V.O2 ­were great­er for ­arms and ­legs exer­cise, and ­were great­er at ­increased exer­cise inten­sities. No inter­ac­tions ­were ­present ­among the inde­pen­dent var­i­ables. When WA exer­cise was per­formed at HR lev­els com­par­able to HR dur­ing ­land exer­cise, WA V.O2 ­were 2-6 great­er ­than LN V.O2. Conclusions. Participants ­were at a >V.O2 in WA, but ­would not ­know ­this ­from mon­i­tor­ing ­their HRtraining. During WA exer­cise, the HR-V.O2 regres­sion ­line was shift­ed to the ­right. Results of the regres­sion anal­y­ses ­showed ­that V.O2 was a sig­nif­i­cant pre­dic­tor of HR. HRtraining pre­dict­ed ­using ­these equa­tions indi­cat­ed ­that HRtraining dur­ing ­upright ­water exer­cise ­should be ­decreased by approx­i­mate­ly 7-13 ­beats.min-1 for ­legs ­only ­water exer­cise and ­arms/­legs ­water exer­cise to ­attain inten­sities com­par­able to LN exer­cise.

language: English


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