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The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2000 December;40(4):303-11

Copyright © 2001 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Physiological responses during two types of exercise performed on land and in the water

Darby L. A., Yaekle B. C.

Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Human Movement, Sport and Leisure Studies, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio, USA


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Background. The pur­pose of ­this ­study was to com­pare ­heart ­rate (HR) and oxy­gen con­sump­tion (V.O2) for sim­i­lar ­upright exer­cis­es per­formed on ­land (LN) and in ­water (WA).
Methods. Setting and par­tic­i­pants: appar­ent­ly ­healthy, ­females (n=12; 20.0±1.6 yrs) com­plet­ed ­legs ­only, and ­arms and ­legs exer­cis­es in WA (30.0±0.0 C) and LN (27.3±2.1 C). Intervention: exer­cise ­cadence/inten­sity ­increased ­each 3 min to ­evoke com­par­able, rel­a­tive exer­cise HRs on LN and WA for ­each par­tic­i­pant. Experimental ­design: ­three-way (Environment X Type of exer­cise X Intensity) repeat­ed meas­ures ANCOVAs ­with ­pace as the covar­i­ate ­were cal­cu­lat­ed for V.O2 and HR. Linear and mul­ti­ple regres­sions ­were deter­mined. Measures: HR, V.O2, and ­pace ­were meas­ured for the ­final ­steady ­state min­ute of all lev­els of the inde­pen­dent var­i­ables. Resting HR and ­blood pres­sure ­were meas­ured pre- and ­postexer­cise.
Results. There was a sig­nif­i­cant ­main ­effect due to envi­ron­ment for V.O2. There was not a sig­nif­i­cant ­main ­effect of envi­ron­ment for HR ­because the ­pace of exer­cise was adjust­ed in the ­water so ­that sim­i­lar “rel­a­tive” work­loads (i.e., inten­sities, ­assessed ­from mon­i­tor­ing HR) ­were giv­en to ­each par­tic­i­pant. HR and V.O2 ­were great­er for ­arms and ­legs exer­cise, and ­were great­er at ­increased exer­cise inten­sities. No inter­ac­tions ­were ­present ­among the inde­pen­dent var­i­ables. When WA exer­cise was per­formed at HR lev­els com­par­able to HR dur­ing ­land exer­cise, WA V.O2 ­were 2-6 ml.kg-1.min-1 great­er ­than LN V.O2. Conclusions. Participants ­were at a >V.O2 in WA, but ­would not ­know ­this ­from mon­i­tor­ing ­their HRtraining. During WA exer­cise, the HR-V.O2 regres­sion ­line was shift­ed to the ­right. Results of the regres­sion anal­y­ses ­showed ­that V.O2 was a sig­nif­i­cant pre­dic­tor of HR. HRtraining pre­dict­ed ­using ­these equa­tions indi­cat­ed ­that HRtraining dur­ing ­upright ­water exer­cise ­should be ­decreased by approx­i­mate­ly 7-13 ­beats.min-1 for ­legs ­only ­water exer­cise and ­arms/­legs ­water exer­cise to ­attain inten­sities com­par­able to LN exer­cise.

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