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A Journal on Applied Physiology, Biomechanics, Preventive Medicine,
Sports Medicine and Traumatology, Sports Psychology

Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,111

Frequency: Monthly

ISSN 0022-4707

Online ISSN 1827-1928


The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 1999 December;39(4):315-20


Tem­poral pat­terns of phys­ical ­activity in ­Olympic ­dinghy ­racing

Legg S. 1, Mackie H. 1, Smith P. 2

1 Depart­ment of Man­age­ment ­Systems, Massey Uni­ver­sity, Pal­merston ­North, New Zea­land;
2 Centre for ­Sport Per­for­mance, The Uni­ver­sity of Auck­land, New Zea­land

Back­ground. The objec­tive of the ­present ­study was to deter­mine the tem­poral pat­terns of phys­ical ­activity in ­four ­classes of ­Olympic ­racing ­dinghy.
­Methods. Experi­mental ­design: Descrip­tive. Set­ting: A ­field (on-­water) ­study. Par­tic­i­pants: Nine­teen ­elite New Zea­land ­sailors (fif­teen ­male and ­four ­female). Inter­ven­tion: Not appli­cable. Meas­ures: The tem­poral pat­tern (dura­tion and fre­quency) and ­nature of the phys­ical activ­ities of ­each ­sailor ­during ­each leg of sim­u­lated ­races ­were ­recorded on ­video ­tape and sub­se­quently system­at­i­cally quan­ti­fied and categ­or­ised ­using nota­tional anal­ysis. The accu­mu­lated per­centage of ­total leg ­time ­spent sit­ting (­upright or ­leaning back­wards), ­hiking (­upright or ­fully ­extended) ­whilst trim­ming and ­whilst ­pumping the main­sheet and for the ­time ­spent on rig adjust­ments, ­tacking and ­gybing ­were cal­cu­lated for ­both up-­wind and off-­wind ­sailing.
­Results. ­When ­sailing up-­wind, the ­most ­time was ­spent ­hiking ­upright (­average 29-66% of ­total leg ­time) ­while trim­ming the main­sheet. ­During off-­wind ­sailing, ­sailors ­spent the ­most ­time sit­ting ­upright ­while trim­ming the main­sheet (­average 29-55% ­total leg ­time). ­Hiking ­upright ­while trim­ming the main­sheet was exe­cuted the ­greatest ­number of ­times (­average 15.8-23.9) ­when ­sailing up-­wind and sit­ting ­upright ­while trim­ming was exe­cuted the ­most ­times (­average 3.5-7.4) ­when ­sailing off-­wind. The ­most ­lengthy con­tin­uous ­activity was ­hiking ­upright ­while trim­ming the main­sheet ­when ­sailing up-­wind (9-18 sec­onds) and sit­ting ­upright ­while trim­ming the main­sheet ­when ­sailing off-­wind (17-34 sec­onds).
Con­clu­sions. The ­most phys­i­cally ­demanding ­aspect of ­Olympic ­yacht ­racing is ­hiking. It ­occurs for the ­majority of up-­wind ­legs ­when the ­wind ­starts to ­exceed approx­i­mately 8 ­knots. The ­only res­pite ­that the ­sailor ­gets ­from ­hiking is ­during ­tacking, rig adjust­ments or sit­ting ­inboard for ­brief ­periods ­when the ­wind is low. Sus­tained ­hiking ­tends to ­last for no ­more ­than approx­i­mately 20 sec­onds ­before the ­sailor ­changes to ­either a ­more ­extended or ­more ­upright ­hiking pos­ture. The phys­ical ­demands ­during off-­wind ­sailing are gen­er­ally ­less, ­except for a ­greater require­ment for ­power in the ­arms and shoul­ders to ­pump the main­sheet in ­order to ­assist the ­dinghy in accel­er­ating ­down ­waves. The find­ings of the ­present ­study are ­directly appli­cable to the ­design of ­sailing spe­cific phys­ical con­di­tioning pro­grammes for ­Olympic ­class ­sailors.

language: English


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