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THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS
A Journal on Applied Physiology, Biomechanics, Preventive Medicine,
Sports Medicine and Traumatology, Sports Psychology
Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,111
The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 1998 December;38(4):323-9
The cardiovascular responses of male subjects to kung fu techniques. Expert/novice paradigm
Jones M. A., Unnithan V. B.
Department of Movement Science and Physical Education, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
Background. The primary aim was to assess cardiovascular responses of expert and novice subjects to kung fu techniques. It was hypothesised that experienced subjects would demonstrate improved economy of movement during the techniques, evidenced by reduced exercise intensity.
Methods. Experimental design: a comparative design was established utilising two groups; experienced (group E), and novice (group N). Setting: the experimentation took place under laboratory conditions, but was designed to maximise external validity.
Participants: the only preselection variables were regular attendance at training and experience. Nine experienced males (group E, exp 9.5±5.2 yrs) and nine novice males (group N, exp 1.2±0.1 yrs) participated. The only exclusion guidelines were contraindications to participate within a maximal test, no subjects were excluded upon this basis. Interventions: N/A. Measures: each subject participated in three kung fu protocols (forms, kicking and punching). Each protocol, randomly allocated, consisted of ten work (30 sec) and ten rest periods (30 sec). Measures taken during the protocols were heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (V.O2). These were expressed as a percentage of maximal values to reflect exercise intensity.
Results. During both the form protocol and punching protocol group E were found to be working at a significantly (p<0.05) lower %V.O2max than group N (forms - group E=71.5+5.3, group N=82.1±6.1; punching - group E=37.5±2.1, group N=40.6±2.6, p<0.05). This suggests that experienced subjects were more economical when performing similar movement patterns.
Conclusions. It was concluded that cardiovascular responses to kung fu techniques differ depending upon experience level. It is difficult to directly relate this to improved economy since work output could not be accurately quantified. It was also found that kung fu protocols elicited exercise intensity into the cardiovascular training zone.