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Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,6
Online ISSN 1827-1898
Fabian J. 1, Katz I. 1, Gerntholtz T. 1, Goetsch S. 2, Naicker S. 1
1 Division of Nephrology Department of Medicine Faculty of Health Sciences University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg, South Africa
2 Division of Anatomical Pathology Faculty of Health Sciences University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg, South Africa
The number of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) worldwide was estimated to be 39.5 million in 2006, 2.6 million more than in 2004. The manifestations of HIV infection in the kidney are multiple and varied, highlighting the complexity of the disease process. There is a wide spectrum of renal disease that occurs in the course of HIV infection. Biopsy studies reveal varying frequencies of histological patterns. HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is most common. A biopsy study at Chris Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto, South Africa showed that HIVAN was present in 27% and immune complex disease in 21%. Han et al. studied HIV-positive patients in Durban, South Africa and screened for proteinuria, including microalbuminuria. They found persistent proteinuria in 6%; HIVAN in 21/30 (72.4%) and the prevalence of HIVAN in patients with persistent microalbuminuria was 85.7%. Studies in black patients have shown a higher prevalence of both severe glomerular lesions (focal glomerulosclerosis) and nephrotic range proteinuria with renal dysfunction in the presence of normo-hypotension. There have been no prospective randomised controlled studies with any form of therapy for HIVAN to date. Therapy of HIVAN has included corticosteroids, cyclosporine and antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART appears to be a logical choice in the management of HIV-associated renal disease. Regimens containing protease inhibitors have been shown to be associated with significant slowing of the decline in creatinine clearance. Both peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis are appropriate treatment modalities for HIV-infected patients with end stage renal disease. The choice of dialysis modality between haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis is not a factor in predicting survival, if patients are stable on ART. Preliminary short-term data in case reports and small cohorts of liver, kidney, and heart transplant recipients suggest that patient survival rates may be similar to those in HIV-uninfected transplant recipients. However, high rates of acute and chronic rejection have been observed among HIV-infected kidney transplant recipients. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) published guidelines in 2005, recommending that all individuals be assessed for kidney disease at the time of diagnosis of HIV infection with a screening urinalysis for proteinuria and a calculated estimate of renal function. Therefore any patient with persistent proteinuria, persistent haematuria or glomerular filtration rate < 60mL/min per 1.73 m2 should be referred to an institution where a specialist can evaluate this patient for further investigations. An integrated plan to reduce the progression to kidney failure together with lifestyle measures, focusing also on high risk groups with effective management at all levels of chronic kidney disease remains essential.