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A Journal on Internal Medicine
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Panminerva Medica 1998 September;40(3):204-9
Left ventricular filling in young patients affected by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a stress Doppler echocardiographic study
Borgia M. C., Pellicelli A. M., Medici F., Barba Cosial J.*, Cabañero J.*, Huelmos A.*, De Paola G., Lionetti M.
From the Institute of Medicine University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Rome, Italy and the * Department of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
Background. The purpose of this study was to analyze diastolic function in two different populations of young patients affected by insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), with and without systemic diabetic complications, and to compare the results obtained at rest with those obtained during isometric exercise.
Methods. Forty-five IDDM diabetic patients were studied. On the basis of presence or absence of systemic diabetic complications (nephropathy and retinopathy) patients were divided into two groups. Group I (20 patients) without and Group II (25 patients) with diabetic complications. Diastolic function parameters were measured by Doppler echocardiography at rest and during isometric exercise. The two groups were similar regarding age, metabolic control and insulin dosage but there were significant differences in diastolic and systolic blood pressure and heart rate between the two groups, the patients with complications showing higher values (p<0.001, p<0.005, p<0.01 respectively).
Results. Group II already presented at rest alterations of diastolic function parameters respect to Group I with a marked increase of: peak velocity of late left ventricular filling (peakA cm/sec), (60.1±13.4 versus 48.4±8.9, p<0.01); late left ventricular filling integral (A area), (6.5±1.4 versus 5.0±0.8, p<0.05); late left ventricular filling integral over total filling (A area/total area), (0.31±0.06 versus 0.26±0.06, p<0.01). There was a decrease of E/A ratio in Group II versus Group I (1.5±0.32 versus 1.9±0.5, p<0.05). During isometric exercise these changes became even more pronounced in patients with complications and in this group there was a marked decrease of flow integral of early left ventricular filling over total filling (E area/total area), (0.57±0.09 versus 0.68±0.07, p<0.01).
Conclusions. In conclusion, young IDDM patients with complications show an impairment of diastolic function more pronounced than those without. These changes are more evident during isometric exercise. Stress Doppler echocardiography is a reliable tool to detect early diastolic dysfunction in diabetic patients.