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Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, Scopus
Online ISSN 1827-188X
Peter J. CATALANO 1, 2
1 Department of Otolaryngology, St. Elizabeth’s Medical Center, Brighton, MA, USA; 2 Department of Otolaryngology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
Inflammation of the lining and outflow tracts of the paranasal sinuses can be due to many factors, including exposure to harmful viruses, bacteria, and fungi. When the inflammation is due to one or more of these pathogens, the condition is defined by the term sinusitis, which can be further refined by duration and associated features as either recurrent acute, chronic with or without polyps, fungal, or hyperplastic. The treatment of sinusitis is determined by its type, patient history, physical exam findings, imaging data, and patient wishes. In general, treatment can be described as holistic (to include saline nasal irrigations, herbal supplements, dietary measures, acupuncture, steam inhalation, watchful waiting, etc.), medicinal (to include over the counter and/or prescription medications with or without some holistic measures), and surgical. The latter has expanded in recent years to include conventional endoscopic sinus procedures (better known as functional endoscopic sinus surgery [FESS]), minimally invasive sinus procedures (better known as minimally invasive sinus techniques [MIST]), balloon dilation procedures (better known as balloon sinuplasty), or some combination of these procedures, better known as a hybrid technique.