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A Journal on Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery,
Plastic Reconstructive Surgery, Otoneurosurgery
Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, Scopus
Otorinolaringologia 2005 June;55(2):123-31
Hearing loss in infants and children. An update on the evaluation and management paradigms
Teoh S. W., Miyamoto R. T.
Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Indiana University School of Medicine Indianapolis, IN, USA
The advent of universal newborn hearing screening and the subsequent monitoring efforts in many developed countries have led to a significant increase in the diagnosis of hearing loss in infants and children. Otolaryngologists are now routinely asked to evaluate and treat hearing deficits in children at a very young age. Alongside this new development is the substantial improvement in our knowledge of the genetics of hearing loss, which has led to the increasing use of genetic testing as part of the diagnostic paradigm. On the treatment front, advances in cochlear implant technology, along with enhanced awareness of the safety of implant surgery, have resulted in expansion of the cochlear implant candidacy to include children as young as 4-6 months. The goal of this article is to review how these new developments have changed the ways otolaryngologists evaluate and treat infants and children with hearing loss. The authors seek to outline the types of hearing loss commonly encountered in this group of patients, the relative merits and pitfalls of the clinical, radiological, laboratory, and genetic testing, and the indications and effectiveness of current medical and surgical treatment options.