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A Journal on Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Affiliated to the and to the International Research Group of Immunoscintigraphy
Indexed/Abstracted in: Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 2,413
Online ISSN 1827-1936
INFLAMMATION AND INFECTION PART 1
Shanthly N., Aruva M. R., Zhang K., Mathew B., Thakur M. L.
Department of Radiology Thomas Jefferson University Philadelphia, PA, USA
Localization of infection is critical for both diagnosis and treatment. Several radioactive compounds such as 67Gallium citrate, 111Indium and 99mTechnetium-labeled leukocytes, peptides and antibodies have been used to localize sites of bacterial infection and phlegmons when anatomical imaging techniques failed. With labeled leukocytes the major concern besides the cost, was the in vitro procedure requiring more than 2 h and trained personnel to handle blood samples. Such limitations paved the way for the emergence of new agents like human immunoglobulin, interleukin-1, peptides and monoclonal antibodies. Following the intensive study of 10 monoclonal antibodies the anti SSEA-1 antibody specific for CD15 antigen was found to have a high Kd value of 1.6×10-11 M for human neutrophils. Labeling of anti CD15 antibody (NeutroSpec) with 99mTc and its FDA approval was a boon to diagnostic imaging as it promised to eliminate many of the well known drawbacks of the in vitro WBC labeling. This antibody has a large number of antigenic binding sites: 5.1×105 per circulating human neutrophil. It has been established that very little CD15 antigen is expressed on the other blood cell lines. Upon intravenous administration to patients there was no adverse reaction except in those with underlying cardiovascular compromise or chronic pulmonary obstructive disease. Another advantage is that, this particular monoclonal antibody has not produced significant human antimouse antibody in research volunteers and patients. Twenty-four hour imaging, SPECT or planar was not required. The following pages describe the various stages of the research activity carried out towards NeutroSpec.