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CURRENT ISSUETHE QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND MOLECULAR IMAGING

A Journal on Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging


A Journal on Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Affiliated to the Society of Radiopharmaceutical Sciences and to the International Research Group of Immunoscintigraphy
Indexed/Abstracted in: Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus
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The Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine 2000 December;44(4):355-64

RADIOBIOLOGY 

Radiosensitivity of tumor cells. Oncogenes and apoptosis

Peltenburg L. T. C.

From the Depart­ment of Clin­ical ­Oncology Leiden Uni­ver­sity Med­ical ­Center, ­Leiden, The Neth­er­lands

The suc­cess of treat­ment of ­cancer ­patients by radio­therapy ­largely ­depends on ­tumor radio­sen­si­tivity. Sev­eral molec­ular fac­tors ­that deter­mine the sen­si­tivity of ­tumor ­cells to ion­izing radi­a­tion ­have ­been iden­ti­fied ­during the ­last ­couple of ­years. ­Some of ­these fac­tors are ­known as onco­genes and ­tumor sup­pressor ­genes. ­This ­review ­focuses on the influ­ence of ­some of ­these molec­ular fac­tors on a ­major deter­mi­nant of radio­sen­si­tivity: i.e. pro­grammed ­cell ­death or apop­tosis. The cru­cial molec­ular ­step in ion­izing radi­a­tion-­induced apop­tosis is the ­release of mit­o­chon­drial cyto­chrome c ­into the ­cell’s ­cytosol. The ­ways the ­tumor sup­pressor pro­tein p53, as ­well as the onco­genes ras and raf, c-myc and Bcl-2 can influ­ence ­this pro­cess at dif­ferent ­stages are pre­sented. As ­will be dis­cussed, the ­result of acti­va­tion of an onco­pro­tein on ­tumor radio­sen­si­tivity ­depends on its mech­a­nism of ­action and on the pres­ence of ­other (onco­genic) fac­tors, ­since com­plex inter­ac­tions ­among ­many molec­ular fac­tors deter­mine the del­i­cate bal­ance ­between ­cell pro­life­ra­tion and ­cell ­death. The ­ongoing iden­tifi­ca­tion and char­ac­ter­iza­tion of fac­tors influ­encing apop­tosis ­will even­tu­ally ­make it pos­sible to pre­dict ­tumor radio­sen­si­tivity and ­thereby ­improve ­cancer treat­ment.

language: English


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