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A Journal on Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Affiliated to the and to the International Research Group of Immunoscintigraphy
Indexed/Abstracted in: Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 2,413
Online ISSN 1827-1936
Panyutin I. G., Winters T. A., Feinendegen L. E., Neumann R. D.
From the Department of Nuclear Medicine National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
Targeting of radiation damage to specific DNA sequences is the essence of antigene radiotherapy. This technique also provides a tool to study molecular mechanisms of DNA repair on a defined, single radiodamaged site. We achieved such sequence-specific radiodamage by combining the highly localized DNA damage produced by the decay of Auger-electron-emitters such as 125I with the sequence-specific action of triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFO). TFO complementary to polypurine-polypyrimidine regions of human genes were synthesized and labeled with 125I-dCTP by the primer extension method. 125I-TFO were delivered into cells with several delivery systems. In addition, human enzymes capable of supporting DNA single-strand-break repair were isolated and assessed for their role in the repair of this lesion. Also, the mutagenicity and repairability of 125I-TFO-induced double strand breaks (DSB) were assessed by repair of a plasmid possessing a site-specific DSB lesion. Using plasmids containing target polypurine-polypyrimidine tracts, we obtained the fine structure of sequence-specific DNA breaks produced by decay of 125I with single-nucleotide resolution. We showed that the designed 125I-TFO in nanomolar concentrations could bind to and introduce double-strand breaks into the target sequences in situ, i.e., within isolated nuclei and intact digitonin-permeabilized cells. We also showed 125I-TFO-induced DSB to be highly mutagenic lesions resulting in a mutation frequency of nearly 80%, with deletions comprising the majority of mutations. The results obtained demonstrate the ability of 125I-TFO to target specific sequences in their natural environment – within eucaryotic nucleus. Repair of 125I-TFO-induced DNA damage should typically result in mutagenic gene inactivation.