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Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 0,536
Online ISSN 1827-1758
Ugochukwu OFFOR 1, Ayoola I. JEGEDE 1, 2, Ismail O. ONANUGA 1, 3, Edwin C. NAIDU 1, Onyemaechi O. AZU 1
1 Discipline of Clinical Anatomy, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; 2 Anatomy Department, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Nigeria; 3 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Kampala International University, Uganda
BACKGROUND: Nephrotoxicity has become an important public health problem following the success recorded with highly active antiretroviral therapy and there is paucity of literature reporting the attenuating influence of plant-based adjuvants that can mitigate the effects.
METHODS: Sixty three adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 9 groups (A-I) and treated as follows; Group A received HAART cocktail (Lamivudine, Stavudine & Nevirapine), Group B received HAART and Hypoxis hemerocallidea (HH) extract (200mg/kg), Group C received HAART and HH (100mg/kg), Group D received HAART and vitamin C, Group E received HAART and vitamin E, Group F received HAART, vitamin C and vitamin E, Group G received HH extract (100mg/kg), Group H received HH extract (200mg/kg), and Group I received saline as placebo. After 56 days, animals were euthanized, kidneys harvested and prepared for H&E staining and blood samples were collected for BUN and serum creatinine analyses.
RESULTS: The results from histological slides showed distorted glomerular and epithelial components with extensive loss of Bowman’s capillary integrity in HAART-treated group. Adjuvant treatment with HH both high and low doses did not show any remarkable attenuating influence. However, HH100mg/kg-alone treated group showed improved histological layout as compared to the higher dose. Co-administration of HAART and vitamins C and E did not improve the parameters examined. The serum creatinine and BUN levels were significantly increased (p<0.05) following HAART with observable increase in kidney body weight ratio. SCR levels in group D was significantly reduced (p<0.05) but elevated in groups B, C, G and H (p<0.001). Groups B and C, as well as groups F and H recorded higher BUN values (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant treatment with HH extract did not attenuate the nephrotoxicity of HAART in this model.