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A Journal on Nephrology and Urology

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Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica 2013 December;65(4):225-34

language: English

Radical cystectomy and orthotopic bladder substitution: surgical tricks and management of complications

Izquierdo L. 1, Bolton D. M. 1, Lawrentschuk N. 1, 2

1 Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne Melbourne, Australia;
2 Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Austin Hospital, Melbourne, Australia


Aim: Bladder cancer is the second most common urological malignancy, with urothelial carcinoma (transitional cell carcinoma) comprising almost 90% of all primary bladder tumours. Over recent decades, radical cystectomy has emerged as the predominant treatment modality for patients with high-grade, invasive urothelial cancers and for those with less-invasive disease who fail treatment with bladder-preservation strategies. Bladder substitution following radical cystectomy has become increasingly common and in many centers has evolved to become the standard method of urinary diversion. The main goal of this paper is to review intraoperative considerations for patients undergoing radical cystectomy with a focus on issues specific to surgical tricks with neobladder construction and postoperative complications.
Methods: Systematic literature review in Pubmed and Embase including bladder cancer, urinary diversion, neobladder, surgical technique and complications as key words.
Results: Intraoperative techniques and modifications have made neobladder construction more amenable and the standard in suitable patients. Postoperative complications still occur in a significant number of patients but may be minimised and recognised early for better outcomes.
Conclusion: Orthotopic bladder substitution does not compromise oncological outcome and importantly can be performed with relatively good results regarding functional and quality of life issues. Modifications to intraoperative technique can assist with neobladder construction to aid better outcomes. Where possible orthotopic bladder substitution should be the diversion of choice. Of paramount importance is the active postoperative management and regular long-term follow-up of patients with an orthotopic bladder substitution.

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