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EXPERTS IN STONE DISEASE
Pipili C., Kiriakoutzik I., Petychaki F., Koutsovasili A.
“Laiki Merimna” Department of Nephrology Athens, Greece
There is graded association between episodes of kidney stones and chronic kidney disease, and the prevalence of nephrolithiasis leading to end stage renal disease (ESRD), although low, is still unavoidable. The marginal causes of nephrolithiasis-related ESRD continue to be metabolic and infection stones. Few lines of investigation account for a higher risk of ESRD in stone formers than in general population, being influenced by hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, gout and recurrent urinary tract infections. Moreover, the risk for ESRD seems to be higher among women over 50 years old who presented more than one episodes of renal colic. However, the evaluation of these studies is limited by the fact that most of them are retrospective, mainly originating from single centre experiences. Additional work on consistent and active patient surveillance will hopefully give information about the association between kidney stones and ESRD, clarifying also the diagnostic dilemmas that have been reported worldwide. This paper addresses the current data for nephrolithiasis-associated ESRD, an interesting topic, the awareness of which should be enhanced.