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MINERVA UROLOGICA E NEFROLOGICA
A Journal on Nephrology and Urology
Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 0,536
REVIEWS HOT TOPICS IN NEPHROLOGY IN 2007
Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica 2007 September;59(3):299-316
Dyslipidaemia in chronic kidney disease
Krane V., Wanner C.
Division of Nephrology Department of Medicine, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a highly atherogenic lipid profile, characterized by elevated triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and accumulation of small dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. Diverse mechanisms are responsible: uraemia, dialysis, immunosuppressive drugs and concomitant diseases exert their effect on the activity of key enzymes, transfer proteins and receptors involved in lipid metabolism. Post hoc analyses from large scale randomized controlled trials suggest a benefit of statin therapy with respect to cardiovascular and renal endpoints in patients with early CKD comparable to the effect in people without renal disease. Observational studies found a reduction in the risk of contrast media induced nephropathy and a reduction in the risk of hospitalization for sepsis in patients who had CKD and were treated with statins. In contrast, prospective, randomized, controlled statin trials in patients with diabetes on haemodialysis and in renal transplant recipients have not conclusively shown improvements in hard cardiovascular endpoints. This review will focus on lipid disturbances in renal disease, their impact on cardiovascular disease, existing endpoint studies and current treatment guidelines.