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MINERVA UROLOGICA E NEFROLOGICA
A Journal on Nephrology and Urology
Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 0,536
Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica 2004 September;56(3):289-303
Diabetes mellitus and dialysis
Stein G. 1, Fünfstück R. 2, Schiel R. 3
1 Department of Internal Medicine III Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena, Germany
2 Department of Internal Medicine I Sophien- and Hufeland-Klinikum Weimar, Germany
3 Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases Inselklinik Heringsdorf Seebad Heringsdorf, Germany
Diabetes mellitus is increasing, and in some countries is the single most important cause, for end-stage renal disease. In general, primarily elderly patients on renal replacement therapy, are not only affected by diabetes-related long-term complications, but also frequently with a wide range of co-morbidities. Apart from cardiac complications, the patients are subject to a wide range of vascular (i.e. peripheral vascular disease, stroke) and infectious complications. In the past this has been reflected by a relatively poor survival rate on dialysis, and minimized chances to obtain renal transplantation. Today, several renal replacement strategies are available, including the main 3: hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or kidney transplantation. For patients with diabetes mellitus, hemodialysis is the most commonly used therapy. Each dialysis unit should achieve an optimal dialysis adequacy represented by a single pool Kt/V of at least 1.2. The most important independent predictor of patient survival with hemodialysis treatment is age. Other factors related to complications are left ventricular hypertrophy, arterial hypertension, hypervolaemia and chronic anemia. Moreover, medial arterial calcification, malnutrition, gastrointestinal disorders and dialysis against low potassium dialysate are related to increased morbidity and mortality as well. An integral part of treatment is the availability of good vascular access. The survival rates of fistulas show a nearly twofold higher rate of failure for synthetic grafts compared with arteriovenous fistulas. The role of peritoneal dialysis in renal replacement therapy in patients with diabetic nephropathy is well established and used world-wide. Most patients with residual renal function start with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), but automated peritoneal dialysis can also be used. An unresolved problem associated with CAPD is the glucose absorption and caloric intake. The optimum adjustment of blood glucose values is made more difficult. Death rates of diabetic patients on peritoneal dialysis remain higher than in non-diabetics. The changes in peritoneal membrane thickness and vascular alterations in relationship to the duration of dialysis are caused mainly by glucose and glucose degradation products, such as advanced glycation endproduct (AGEs). Therefore, new peritoneal dialysis solutions are needed to reduce the complications and to delay a long-time function of the peritoneal membrane. Peritonitis remains still the major cause of discontinuation of dialysis but there is no increased risk in diabetic patients.
Nevertheless, an integrative care of end-stage renal disease patients with diabetic nephropathy should be offered to the patient, starting on peritoneal dialysis and switch to hemodialysis if problems arise. During the whole time patients should be kept on the renal transplantation waiting list.