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MINERVA UROLOGICA E NEFROLOGICA
A Journal on Nephrology and Urology
Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 0,536
Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica 2003 September;55(3):185-92
Atherosclerotic ischemic renal disease
Moscaritolo E. 1, Coen G. 1, Calabria S. 1, Lai S. 2, Nofroni I. 3, Rossi M. 5, Ventroni G. 4, Sardella D. 1, Zaccaria A. 6, Cianci R. 2
1 Renal Pathophysiology and Hypertension Unit, Chair of Nephrology “La Sapienza” University, Rome, Italy
2 VI Medical Clinic “La Sapienza” University, Rome, Italy
3 Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology “La Sapienza” University, Rome, Italy
4 Nuclear Medicine Unit “La Sapienza” University, Rome, Italy
5 II Chair of Radiology “La Sapienza” University, Rome, Italy
6 Chair of Vascular Surgery “La Sapienza” University, Rome, Italy
Aim. Atherosclerotic ischemic renal disease is a frequent cause of end-stage renal failure leading to dialysis among the elderly; its prevalence is inferred from autopsy or retrospective arteriographic studies. Screening investigation for ischemic nephropathy on large cohorts, based on non invasive diagnostic techniques, have not so far been published. This study has been conducted on 269 subjects over 50 with hypertension and/or chronic renal failure, unrelated to other known causes of renal disease.
Methods. All 269 patients were studied either by color-flow duplex sonography (n=238) or by renal scintigraphy (n=224), and 199 of the 269 patients were evaluated using both of these techniques. Forty patients, found to have renal artery stenosis, were subjected to 3D-contrast enhancement magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and/or digital selective angiography (DSA). An additional 23 cases, negative both to scintigraphy and to ultrasound study, underwent renal angiography (MRA and/or DSA).
Results. Color-duplex sonography, carried out in 238 patients, revealed 49 cases of renal artery stenosis. MR or DSA was carried out in 35 of these 49 patients, and confirmed the diagnosis in 33. Color-duplex sonography was 91.7% sensitive and 90.9% specific, with positive predictive value of 94.2% and negative predictive value of 86.9%. Specificity and sensitivity of renal scintigraphy, carried out in 224 patients, was significantly lower. Patients with renal artery stenosis showed a higher degree of renal insufficiency compared to non stenotic patients while there were no differences in the extent of proteinuria between the two groups. Renal artery stenosis, based on color-duplex sonography studies, was present in 11% of patients in the age group 50-59, 18% in the 60-69 and 23% at age 70 and above.
Conclusion. A relatively large percentage of the elderly population with renal insufficiency and/or hypertension is affected by renal artery stenosis and is at risk of developing end-stage renal failure. Color-duplex ultrasonography is a valid routine method of investigation of population at risk for renal artery stenosis.