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MINERVA UROLOGICA E NEFROLOGICA
A Journal on Nephrology and Urology
Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 0,536
Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica 2003 March;55(1):101-9
Hypertension after renal transplantation
Dikow R., Zeier M., Ritz E.
Department of Internal Medicine, Ruperto Carola University, Heidelberg, Germany
With current immunosuppression elevated blood pressure is found in almost 90% of renal graft recipients. Major causes of this finding are impairment of renal function, secondary to chronic allograft nephropathy or (less frequently) recurrence of primary renal disease, the use of calcineurin inhibitors as immunosuppresants, uncontrolled renin secretion by the shrunken kidneys of the recipient, stenos- ing lesions of the transplant artery (or the upstream arteries of the recipient), polycytemia and (genetic predisposition to) hypertension of the graft donor. Even minor degrees of blood pressure elevation have a significant impact on survival of the recipient and on graft survival, presumably by amplifying vascular injury to the graft. In this respect, elevation of systolic blood pressure and an abnormal circadian blood pressure profile are of particular relevance. In contrast to previous opinion, ACE inhibitors are indicated in the treatment, but, given the causal role of sodium retention in graft vasoconstriction, diuretics and calcium channel blockers remain main stays of antihypertensive treatment in the renal allograft recipient.