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Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 0,536
Online ISSN 1827-1758
From the Division of Nephrology and Hypertension Department of Medicine Vanderbilt University Medical Center Nashville, TN, USA
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. Three PPAR isoforms, designated PPAR-α, -β/δ, and -γ, have been identified and were initially investigated in the tissues along urinary tract because of their known role in regulating lipid-activated gene transcription, lipid metabolism, inflammation and cell proliferation and differentiation. Gene distribution studies suggested that 3 PPAR isoforms are differentially expressed in the kidney. PPAR-α is predominantly expressed in renal proximal tubules and medullary thick ascending limbs. PPAR-γ is mainly localized in renal medullary collecting duct with lower expression in renal glomeruli and renal microvasculature. Unlike PPAR-α and -γ, PPAR-β/δ is ubiquitously expres-sed in every segment along the nephron. In ureter and urinary bladder, all PPAR isoforms are mainly localized in urothelium of ureter and bladder. The emerging data have suggested physiological and pathophysiological roles of PPARs in tissues along urinary tract. PPAR-α plays a major role in triggering fatty acid utilization and the adaptive response to dietary lipids in the kidney. PPAR-β/δ contributes to cell survival of renal interstitial cell in medullary hyperosmality. PPAR-γ is involved in regulating renal hemodynamic and water and sodium transport. Furthermore, it also participates in the pathogenesis of glomerulopathy, antidiabetic thiazolidinedione-related water and sodium retention and renal, bladder and prostate carcinomas. PPARs may serve as potential therapeutic targets for certain diseases along urinary tract including glomerulosclerosis, diabetic nephropathy and kidney, prostate and bladder tumors.