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MINERVA UROLOGICA E NEFROLOGICA
A Journal on Nephrology and Urology
Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 0,536
Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica 1998 September;50(3):185-90
New aspects on prostate cancer: hereditary form, developmental estrogenization and differentiation therapy
Sciarra A., Casale P., Di Chirio C., Di Nicola S., Di Silverio F.
University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Rome, Department of Urology “U. Bracci”
Three new different aspects of prostate cancer have been considered in this review: the existence of an hereditary form, the role of estrogens as predisposing factors and the efficacy of differentiation therapies. Prostate cancer shows a stronger familial aggregation than colon and breast carcinoma. Hereditary prostate cancer is distinguished by early age at onset and autosomal dominant inheritance within families. However, only 2% of all prostate cancer in United States white men occur in those 55 years old or younger. Thus, the impact of hereditary prostate cancer in the population is the greatest at younger ages but this accounts for only a small proportion of the total disease burden. Using the developmentally estrogenized mouse model, an alternative role for estrogens as a predisposing factor for prostate diseases was proposed: estrogen exposure during development may initiate cellular changes in the prostate which would require estrogens and/or androgens later in life for promotion to neoplasia. A combination therapy employing both differentiation therapy and hormone therapy may be effective in the treatment of advanced prostate cancers. Recent advances in the field of differentiation therapy have resulted in the development of novel retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents. Unlike previous differentiating agents such as the retinoids, these agents increase the endogenous levels of retinoic acid by inhibiting its breakdown in cancer cells.