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A Journal on Dentistry and Maxillofacial Surgery

Official Journal of the Italian Society of Odontostomatology and Maxillofacial Surgery
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Minerva Stomatologica 2011 March;60(3):105-15


language: English, Italian

Oral and non oral diseases and conditions associated with bad breath

Migliario M. 1, Rimondini L. 2

1 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy 2 Department of Medical Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy


AIM: The causes of bad breath are numerous and related to conditions dependent or not on oral and general health. The aim of our observational study is the assessment of the simultaneous relationships between halitosis, oral and/or nonoral diseases, and lifestyles using the principal components analysis of categorical data (CATPCA) to identify the main components involved in the detection of the symptom.
METHODS: A sample of 192 patients, who requested general dental examination at the Dental Clinic, participated at the study. Alimentary and voluptuary habits, general health information, drugs assumption, the status of teeth and intraoral medical devices including fillers, lesions of the oral mucosa, tongue coating score (TCS), plaque index (PI), probing bleeding index (PBI) and organoleptic tests were all evaluated. Data were analysed using CATPCA model.
RESULTS: A strong relationship between halitosis and plaque, probing bleeding and tongue coating indexes was observed, whereas incongruous fillers, prostheses, systemic pathologies or diet were not clearly associated with halitosis probably because their effects on breath were clinically sheltered by the periodontal condition.
CONCLUSION:The data of our observational study confirm that halitosis is more indicative of tongue coating and periodontal disease, rather than other oral and non oral associated conditions, like systemic pathologies or specific habits of life.

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