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Pimentel Lopes De Oliveira G. J., Amaral Fontanari L., Chaves De Souza J. A., Ribeiro Costa M., Cirelli J. A.
UNESP, Division of Periodontology, São Paulo State University, Department of Diagnosis and Surgery, School of Dentistry at Araraquara, Araraquara, SP, Brazil
Preterm birth is a major problem in public health in developed and developing countries and the search for risk factors of this event is important. The aim of this study was to review the effect of periodontal treatment on the incidence of preterm delivery. A wide research was executed considering an evaluation period between November of 1998 and October of 2009 at MEDLINE/PUBMED databases. The selection strategy consisted of the search for the following key-words: “periodontal therapy” or “periodontal disease” and “pregnancy outcome” or “preterm birth”. The search was limited for articles written in English. The randomized clinical trials that evaluated the effect of the non-surgical periodontal treatment on the incidence of Preterm Low Birth Weight (PLBW) were selected. In a total of 7 papers selected, the incidence of PLBW was lower in groups of women who were submitted to periodontal treatment. Reductions of Preterm Birth (PTB) ranged from 0.8% to 28.01%, while reduction of Low Birth Weight (LBW) ranged from 0.44% to 33%. In studies that analyzed these two variables together, there was variation between 4.57% to 71.5% in rates reduction. Due to heterogeneity of the data, the meta-analysis was not applied. The majority of the studies concluded that non-surgical periodontal treatment in pregnant women reduces incidence of preterm babies with low weight.