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A Journal on Dentistry and Maxillofacial Surgery
Minerva Stomatologica 2010 September;59(9):445-64
language: English, Italian
How do biomaterials affect the biological activities and responses of cells? An in vitro study
Pappalardo S., Carlino V., Brutto D., Sinatra F. ✉
Section of Odonto-Stomatology II, Dental Emergency, University of Catania, Gaspare Rodolico-Vittorio Emanuele, University Hospital, Catania, Italy
AIM: As part of regenerative bone surgery, according to the principles of tissue engineering and GBR, the use of biomaterials aims to restore bone deficiencies by restoring both functionality and original morphology of the bone tissue. Besides being biocompatible, biofunctional and reabsorbable, the ideal scaffolding should possess an osteoinductive geometry, which depends on many physical-chemical characteristics and, in particular, on a three-dimensional morphology and the placement of molecules, which would determine pore size and interconnection between them. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to carry out an analysis with a scanning electron microscope, in order to evaluate the effect of the diameter size of the scaffold pores on the bio-molecular interaction between osteoblast-like MG63 cells and four biomaterials with different pore sizes: polylactic-co-glycolic acid, deproteinized bovine bone, equine bone, demineralized bone matrix (DBM).
METHODS: Through the observations made with SEM and X-ray microanalysis, it is possible to infer how the morphology, the proliferative ability, the modality of adhesion and the differentiation of MG63 cells are influenced in different ways by the porous structure of the various biomaterials used as a substrate for growth.
RESULTS: From among all of the biomaterials examined, DBM represented the best substrate for growth; in fact, there would be a more intense and precocious adhesion of MG-63 cells.
CONCLUSION: The strong osteoconductive effect observed in human DBM, seems to be related to the presence of the organic component, while the osteoinductive effect would be mainly attributed to the presence of BMPs.