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Pizolato R. A. 1, Silva De Freitas Fernandes F. 2, Beatriz Duarte Gavião M. 3
1 Speech Pathologist, Department of Oral Physiologym,, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Piracicaba, San Paolo, Brazil;
2 Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Piracicaba, San Paolo, Brazil;
3 Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Piracicaba, San Paolo, Brazil
AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of deglutition in children having or not temporomandibular disorders (TMD) or signs and/or symptoms of TMD.
METHODS: The sample comprised 152 children aged from 8 to 12 years (78 males and 74 females, mean age 10.05±1.39 years). The clinical signs were evaluated using the axis I of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) and the symptoms, using a questionnaire. Patients were divided into the following groups: Group TMD (N.=40), signs and symptoms of TMD (Group S and S, N.=68), signs or symptoms of TMD (Group S or S, N.=33) and without signs and symptoms (Group N, N.=11). Characteristics of orofacial structures such as occlusion, tongue, lingual frenulum, lips and mentalis muscle were evaluated. Myofunctional evaluation during deglutition with solid (bread) and liquid (water) was also performed.
RESULTS: A high prevalence of abnormal deglutition was found, with similar proportion in groups. Alterations in lips, mentalis muscle and tongue in swallowing was significantly smaller in Group N than in the other groups. The proportions of children with lower lip interposition and lateral tongue thrust, when swallowing liquid, were significantly higher than swallowing solids. There was a smaller proportion of children in Group N with lower lip interposition when swallowing liquids. CONCLUSIONS: TMD or presence of signs and/or symptoms of TMD was not associated with an abnormal deglutition. Nevertheless, orofacial myofunctional alterations could be considered influencing factors on TMD, due to the high prevalence of abnormal deglutition pattern. In addition, the abnormal deglutition could be attributed to the malocclusion, mixed dentition phase and orofacial myofunctional characteristics.