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A Journal on Dentistry and Maxillofacial Surgery
Minerva Stomatologica 2007 July-August;56(7-8):373-92
language: English, Italian
Autogenous, allogenetic and xenogenetic grafts for maxillary sinus elevation: literature review, current status and prospects
Garofalo G. S.
Private practice, Bologna, Italy
Increasing patient requests for more valid prosthetic solutions usefully and aesthetically guide today’s implantology to search for more reliable techniques with predictable results. Developed in the early 1980s, maxillary sinus floor elevation is a surgical technique for restoring bone tissue loss at sites for implant insertion; a variety of methods and materials are used. This article offers a review of the literature on autogenous, allogenetic and xenogenetic grafts for bone regeneration and maxillary sinus floor elevation; the focus is on the osteoconductive, osteoinductive and osteogen characteristics of the various grafts and their clinical and biological aspects. Maxillary sinus elevation with filling materials (biomaterials) is a safe oral surgery technique. Bone regeneration is an ongoing complex process leading to anatomical and functional restoration. Many events take place when biomaterials come into contact with a biological environment; molecular and cellular interactions influence tissue characteristics around biomaterials. In the presence of biomaterials, growth factors are adsorbed or wet the surface of bone substitutes, promoting graft integration with the bone. The function of biomaterials is to promote rapid bone formation; when the bone substitute is fully integrated, a gradual substitution by new bone tissue takes place.