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A Journal on Dentistry and Maxillofacial Surgery
Minerva Stomatologica 2002 June;51(6):251-62
Giachini M., Pierleoni F.
Even though the reduction of caries-incidence in developed countries, its increasing has been observed nowadays. The use of a vaccine was object of many researches, going under modifications and evaluations during years. Wallace and McCollum showed the chance to induce experimental cavities, while Clarke and McIntosh were the first underlining the roll of S. mutans and Lactobacilli as efforts of the pathology. Williams was the first working with humans and Zinner and Fitzgerald continued. So since Bowen the research tried to build a vaccine made of single bacterial molecules with antigenic power. We can count about a large number of targets, like: the Ag I/II, the glucosyltransferase enzyme (GTF), the glucan-binding-protein (GBP), the destranase, the fruttosyltransferase and the glucans. Among the substances used to obtain a vaccine cacao revealed its capacity against bacteria able to develop cavities, thanks to its cariostatic and anti-glucosyltransferase activity due to polyphenols, that we can find in green tea too. It's also interesting a tecnique that gives passive antibodies like cow's milk, but in particular the one of a monoclonal antibody made with biotechnology of plants: the Guy's 13. It does not show substantial differences in comparison with the human Ig and it's able to prevent the installation of micro-organism and to reduce cavities in adult patients already infected. For the setting-up of a vaccine, however, only studies, comparison and research will be able to show precise instruments of defence.