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Online ISSN 1827-174X
Gallina G., Cumbo E., Gallo P., Pizzo G., D'Angelo M.
Background. A fundamental requirement to obtain a correct endodontic preparation depends on the respect, during cleaning and shaping, of the original morphology of the apical foramen, (AF), so that the filling material will form a complete seal.
Methods. In our previous studies, in order to verify if this presumption was respected using rotary NiTi instruments with cutting tip, we instrumented extracted teeth characterised by a different degree of root curvatures. Using a standardized system to replace the sample, the original shape of the apical foramen of each tooth was recorded using a computerised technique and then compared to the shape after instrumentation.
The data showed differences on AF shapes depending on the degree of root canal curvatures. In fact, the teeth with straight canals showed the least alterations on the original AF shape; on the contrary, the teeth with curved canals showed apical foramen enlargement or transportation. Therefore, in the current study we aimed to compare the in vitro effects of stainless steel, (Flexofile, Dentsply Maillefer, Baillaigues, Switzerland), vs NiTi safe cutting tip (Quantec SC, (Tycom Dental, Irvine CA, U.S.A.), vs NiTi non cutting tip, (Quantec LX, Tycom Dental, Irvine CA, U.S.A.), instrumentation on original apical foramen shape. We used NiTi instruments according to standard technique suggested by Tycom, and hand steel files, to instrument the apical third, according to the Crown-Down technique. Working length was fixed at -0.5 from AF.
Results and Conclusions. Our results suggested that in the presence of accentuated canal curves rotary Niti, with cutting tip, cause significantly more enlargement of the AF area. At the same time, we also observed that NiTi rotary files, with both cutting and non-cutting tip, cause eccentric enlargement of AF in curved canals. Therefore, NiTi engine-driven instruments should be used carefully in the presence of accentuated canal curves to avoid enlargement or transportation of AF, probably because rotary NiTi files may slip out of operative control, leaving a mark on the foramen shape. In the presence of severe curves, we suggest modifying the operative sequences by alternating rotary NiTi with hand NiTi or stainless steel instruments, especially in the preparation of apical third.