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Online ISSN 1827-174X
Consolo U., Bertoldi C., Urbani G., Zaffe D.
Background. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis is a process to form new alveolar bone to correct alveolar deformities in ridge height and width. Aim of this work is to study the bone processes to optimize the implantoprosthetic rehabilitation.
Methods. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis was applied in 7 patients with ridge deformities to obtain the desired ridge augmentation. Clinical and radiological evaluations were performed during the following 12 weeks, before implant insertion. Biopsies at 40, 60 and 88 days were studied after general, specific and histochemical staining of slides; microradiographs were analyzed to evaluate the trabecular bone volume.
Results. Forty days after the end of distraction, soft callus shows the start of ossification. Sixty days after the end of distraction, soft callus was widely converted into a network of trabecular woven bone; osteogenic activities were low; trabecular bone volume was about 50%. Eighty-eight days after the end of distraction bone amount appeared reduced, with a more ordered structure, further reduction of bone formation activity, whereas osteoclast erosion was active.
Conclusions. Results show an almost steady-state bone deposition processes 60 days after the end of distraction and a regress with longer time. The results suggest the possibility of an early implant insertion to avoid bone loss due to mechanical unloading.