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Minerva Psichiatrica 2007 September;48(3):297-312

Copyright © 2007 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: Italian

Motor and behavior disorders during sleep in adults

Zucconi M.

Centro di Medicina del Sonno Dipartimento di Neurologia Ospedale San Raffaele Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milano


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According to the new International Classifica-tion of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2), motor and behaviour disorders during sleep belong both to the parasomnias and sleep related movement disorders sections. Moreover, some other rare disorders and with less impact on night sleep are classified in a special section as isolated phenomena, apparently normal variants and unresolved issues, waiting for a better nosological position. Among the parasomnias usually associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, REM sleep behaviour disorder is the more frequent, whilst disorders of arousal (usually from non REM sleep) are more represented in children and adolescents than in adults. Among sleep related movement disorders in adults, behind restless legs syndrome, we have periodic limb movement sleep disorder, with a nosological identity not completely defined and recognised from a clinical point of view, sleep related bruxism, sleep related cramps and sleep related rhythmic movement disorder, more frequent in children. Among the other parasomnias both sleep related eating disorder and nocturnal groaning may provoke consequences both on sleep structure, with fragmentation and lightening of nocturnal sleep, and on daytime vigilance and quality of life. Finally, among the isolated symptoms and apparently normal variants we find propriospinal myoclonus a phenomenon which involves the wakefulness before sleep onset but it may determine a significant impact on nocturnal sleep with daytime consequences.

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