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Minerva Pneumologica 2008 September;47(3):127-42

language: English

Co-morbidities in pulmonary arterial hypertension

Monteiro B. C., McArdle J. R.

Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Yale University School of Medicine New Haven, CT, USA


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Pulmonary arterial hypertension can be idiopathic in nature, or may be associated with any of a variety of co-morbid illnesses, including such disparate conditions as connective tissue disease, congenital heart disease, hemoglobinopathies, HIV infection, portal hypertension, drug or toxin ingestion, thyroid disease and others. There are significant differences between these patient populations in terms of their presentation, hemodynamic parameters, response to therapy and survival. This review explores the similarities and differences in the presentation, pathogenesis, prognosis, and therapeutic options of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension related to congenital heart disease, connective disease, hemoglobinopathy, thyroid disease, HIV, portal hypertension and drug or toxin induced disease.

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